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Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a relatively new separation technique based on differential migration velocity of compounds in an electric field. Because of the different separation mechanism it is considered to be complementary to LC. It has been introduced to a rather limited extent in monographs, for the test on related substances, mainly in cases where LC could not yield satisfactory results. In general it can be expected that CE will not replace LC for assay purposes, because the precision obtained in CE is not superior to the precision in LC.

The assay has already been partly discussed under ‘Definition’ (see above). Assay methods do not need to be sensitive but should be accurate and reproducible. Specificity contributes to better accuracy.

UV assays are almost absent in new monographs. The UV methods either use specific absorbance values or a reference substance. The latter leads to better reproducibility but obviously is more expensive. UV methods are not selective. Titration methods are reproducible but not very accurate since impurities may react too. LC assays are now introduced more frequently, in the first place because they are also used for simultaneous testing for related substances, but also because they are more selective and accurate. Another argument in favour of LC is that the active part of the molecule is determined, whereas in many titrations the counter-ion is titrated. Microbiological assays for antibiotics have been replaced by LC in many cases. At first, LC was introduced for the semi-synthetic and the less complex natural antibiotics, but more recently LC is also used for the more complex ones and when necessary, several active components are summed to give the final content value.

For salts of basic antibiotics, the content was originally expressed in terms of the base in order to obtain values that were more easily comparable to the original potency figures, expressed in International Units/mg. This sometimes gave very low content values for salts and consequently gave an erroneous impression of poor purity. This situation is now being adapted so that contents are expressed in terms of the salt and therefore yield values that are closer to 100%. It should be emphasised that there is no official relationship between potency and content expressions, which means that they cannot be translated into each other.

The list of impurities is undergoing major changes. At this moment the situation is rather complex; some monographs have no impurities list and in those having one, several different subheadings are used. There is consensus that this should be adapted as soon as possible in order to be fully compliant with the ICH prescriptions.

The Ph. Eur. is very much alive because it is undergoing interesting changes that will certainly help to confirm the eminent place it has conquered worldwide in past decades.


Issue 3 2005

Related organisations

Catholic University of Leuven

By Erwin Adams, Ann Van Schepdael and Jos Hoogmartens, Laboratory for Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Drug Analysis, Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium

22 August 2005

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Issue 3 2005

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Catholic University of Leuven

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Ohtani's pinch-hit homer lifts Angels

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Oakland Athletics starting pitcher Brett Anderson delivers in the first inning of a baseball game against the Cleveland Indians, Sunday, July 8, 2018, in Cleveland. Tony Dejak AP Photo
Oakland Athletics starting pitcher Brett Anderson delivers in the first inning of a baseball game against the Cleveland Indians, Sunday, July 8, 2018, in Cleveland. Tony Dejak AP Photo


Ohtani's pinch-hit homer lifts Angels over Dodgers 4-3

The Associated Press

July 09, 2018 03:30 AM

Updated 10 hours 10 minutes ago

Shohei Ohtani's pinch-hit home run in the seventh inning sent Andrew Heaney and the Los Angeles Angels to a 4-3 victory over the Los Angeles Dodgers on Sunday.

Albert Pujols also went deep for the Angels, tying the score at 3 in the sixth. Justin Upton had a two-run single.

Heaney (5-6) allowed only three hits and equaled a career high with 10 strikeouts in seven innings to help the Angels take two of three at home in the Freeway Series. He gave up an early three-run homer to Yasiel Puig, who later left with an oblique injury.

inRead invented by Teads

Ohtani drove his first career pinch-hit homer a projected 443 feet to center field off reliever JT Chargois (2-2). It also was the Angels' first pinch-hit home run of the season and Ohtani's seventh in the majors.

The two-way rookie star from Japan, unavailable to pitch lately because of an elbow injury, fouled a ball off his knee one day earlier and experienced soreness. Before the game, it was unclear if he would be able to come off the bench.

Justin Anderson got Cody Bellinger to ground into a game-ending double play for his fourth save.


CLEVELAND (AP) — Brett Anderson came off the disabled list and pitched effectively into the sixth inning before turning things over to Oakland's outstanding bullpen as the Athletics blanked Cleveland.

Anderson (1-2) had been sidelined with a shoulder strain, one of several injuries to the A's starting staff. But the left-hander looked sharp in his first start since May 18, limiting the Indians to three hits and leaving with a 4-0 lead.

Stephen Piscotty hit a two-run homer off rookie Shane Bieber (4-1), and Jed Lowrie had a solo shot as Oakland won for the 10th time in 12 games to take two of three from the Indians.

Sorry for my run-on sentences, I am tired, lol…hope that I still make sense and that it’s useful. :)

People should try the oat flour to see if it works for them, I suggest grinding the flour very fine – another great reason to own a Vitamix. Thanks for the spraying tip D… that is a great idea.

I had an empty spray bottle so I tried and it works great. Saved a lot from running down the drain. Thanks for the tip…I’m also going to try the oat flour.

Glad you’re having success Stephanie!

Jackie says

Hi! I’ve been doing baking soda and acv for almost 3 months. I followed the directions here and I added about half teaspoon of xanthan gum to each bottle. Shake it to mix. It turns the liquid into gel. You can get xanthan gum at most health food stores and its relatively cheap!

longtall says

How much does it cost? It costs more than the shampoo but is still inexpensive compared to store bought conditioner, especially if you have been buying organic brands.

•Cost = approximately $0.13/ounce depending on how much you pay for your vinegar.

Anyone can buy a gallon of apple cider vinegar at Walmart for 3.83. There are 128 oz. in a gallon. That would be $0.03 per oz for the vinegar.. A tablespoon is a 1/2 oz, so a cup of mixture would be $0.015 per cup. Figure the cost after adding the ingredients. You are not putting 100% ACV in your hair. I use a palm-full of vinegar mixture in my hair daily, that is 9 palms-full per 1/4 cup and a cost of $0.0004166 or less than .042 cents per use. A 16 oz bottle at $2.00 would yeild 32 cups of mixture would be $0.0625 per cup of mixture. You shouldn’t say that’s how much the product cost, because the water you add to the vinegar brings the cost per oz way down. I doubt the water used would add to your water bill.

Interesting longtail. That $0.0625 per cup translates to $0.0078125 per ounce! Extremely cheap!

Sweet, thanks for the breakdown!

Teri Z. says

What do you mean by “with the mother?” What is a mother in the organic ACV?

Jump to Content Jump to Resources

Linguistics > About Linguistics > I Appreciate And Respect You

To get involved, please click on the following link to fill out a brief contact form:


This project is a partnership between Dr. Alexandra Jaffe (Chair of the Linguistics Department) and Dr. Craig Stone (Director of the American Indian Studies Program) and is intended to increase knowledge of and respect for the linguistic and cultural diversity of faculty, students and staff.

The project was born out of Stone’s participation in the CSU Ethnic Studies Task Force, which reinforced the urgency for campuses to take concrete action to make all members of a community feel appreciated and respected. This was coupled with Jaffe’s interest in “Linguistic Landscaping”—how written language in public places reflects and shapes the cultural climate and Stone’s expertise in public art.

The project is thus focused on promoting mutual knowledge and empathy across different groups and is the first collaborative effort of the Puvungna Arts Empathy Production Project .

As the videos and recordings below illustrate, speakers of different languages and dialects are recorded saying a sentence that expresses appreciation and respect.

The phrase (a translation or adaptation of “I appreciate and respect you”) is printed on a laminated poster that has a QR barcode (see an example below). Viewers who capture the code on a smartphone camera are led to this page (or a similar page on the AIS website) where they can listen to sound files and view videos of the speaker or signer on the poster. These posters are put up around the campus–either as roving exhibits or individually (on office doors or walls, for example), thus serving as a visible notice of sometimes invisible linguistic diversity attached to a positive message of intergroup relations.

The goal of the project is ambitious: To record all the languages (and dialects!) spoken or signed on the CSULB campus and to have the video and audio files present on many departments’, offices’, organizations’ and clubs’ websites.

These posters were first introduced at the February 2017 International Mother Language Day , that celebrated the diversity of our campus’s languages. Below, please find video and audio files of individuals interviewed for this project by the Linguistics Department.

If you would like to get involved –either by being recorded, or by learning how to make the recordings and posters and to take this project to your group or workplace, please click on the link below:

If you would like to get involved


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